Critical thinking is the analysis and evaluation of facts and ideas to form a judgement and guide action. The skills and topics covered in this domain help students generate and assess ideas to formulate arguments and solve problems. In addition, some skills in this category involve adopting a framework of thinking that guides this process. Thinking critically is dependent on the ability to reflect on one’s thought processes and avoid the pitfalls of cognitive bias.

What you’ll find on each skill page:

  • Overview and description
  • Importance and relevance to students’ academic lives
  • Strategies, Tips, and Activities for educators to embed in the curriculum

Asking questions

Asking questions involves verbalizing or writing something to gain information or test someone’s knowledge.


Brainstorming is a method that is used to generate ideas for the purpose of solving a defined problem.

Cognitive bias

Cognitive bias is a pattern of thinking that is used to simplify and make sense of the world.

Critical reflection

Critical reflection is an extension of critical thinking that involves evaluating and challenging assumptions.

Cultivating creativity

Cultivating creativity is the deliberate act of thinking in new ways and seeking original approaches to an activity or problem.

Design thinking

Design thinking is an iterative and non-linear human-centred process that is used to develop creative solutions.

Logical argument formulation

Logical argument formulation is the ability to assemble facts and information into reasonable, persuasive statements that can influence others.


Problem-solving is the process of using various methods and steps to seek solutions to issues or difficulties.

Thinking outside the box

Thinking outside the box is a metaphor that means thinking in unconventional ways or from a novel perspective.